executions in the world:

In 2024


2000 to present



  • Abolitionist
  • retentionist
  • De facto abolitionist
  • Moratorium on executions
  • Abolitionist for ordinary crimes
  • Committed to abolishing the death penalty


government: federal parliamentary republic
state of civil and political rights: Free
constitution: 26 January 1950; amended many times, last in 2020
legal system: common law system based on the English model; separate personal law codes apply to Muslims, Christians, and Hindus; judicial review of legislative acts
legislative system: bicameral Parliament (Sansad) consists of the Council of States (Rajya Sabha) and the People's Assembly (Lok Sabha)
judicial system: Supreme Court (consists of 28 judges, including the chief justice); High Courts; District Courts; Labour Court
religion: Hindu 79.8%, Muslim 14.2%, Christian 2.3%, Sikh 1.7%, other and unspecified 2% (2011 est.)
death row: 539 (december 2022, Project 39A )
year of last executions: 21-11-2012
death sentences: 36
executions: 0
international treaties on human rights and the death penalty:

International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights

Convention on the Rights of the Child

Convention Against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment (signed only)





Innocent people


Death penalty for rape


Death penalty for terrorism


Commutation of death sentences


Death penalty for violent crimes





Asia, Middle East, Australia and Oceania