SLOVAKIA - Abolitionist
Government: parliamentary democracy
State of civil and political rights: Free
Constitution: 1 January 1993; changed in September 1998 to allow direct election of the president; amended February 2001 to allow Slovakia to apply for NATO and EU membership
Legal System: civil law system based on Austro-Hungarian codes;
Legislative System: unicameral National Council of the Slovak Republic (Narodna Rada Slovensky Repubiky)
Judicial System: Supreme Court (judges are elected by the National Council); Constitutional Court (judges appointed by president from group of nominees approved by the National Council); Special Court (judges elected by a council of judges and appointed by president)
Religion: Roman Catholic 68.9%, Protestant 10.8%, other or unspecified
International Treaties on the Death Penalty and Human Rights:
- International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights
- 1st Optional Protocol to the Covenant
- Second Optional Protocol to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (aiming to the abolition of the death penalty)
- Convention on the Rights of the Child
- Convention Against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment
- European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms
- 6th Protocol to the European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms (concerning the abolition of the death penalty)
- European Convention for the Prevention of Torture and Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment
- Protocol No. 13 to the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, concerning the abolition of the death penalty in all circumstances
- Statute of the International Criminal Court (which excludes the death penalty)
Slovakia abolished the death penalty for all crimes in 1990. Slovakia’s membership in the Council of Europe prohibits the state from reintroducing capital punishment into its laws. The Constitution of the Republic of Slovakia (1992) at Art. 15 states: "A law shall not provide for a sentence of death to be imposed by any court."
The death penalty was abolished when Slovakia was part of the Czech and Slovak Federal Republic. That entity became two separate states in 1993.
The last criminal executed in Slovakia was Štefan Svitek, whom psychologists classified a psychopath. The repeat offender was put to death on June 8, 1989, for the rape and murder of his two daughters and pregnant wife.
On December 20, 2012, Slovakia co-sponsored and voted in favour of the Resolution on a Moratorium on the Use of the Death Penalty at the UN General Assembly.